The 17th century was an era when most people on low or average incomes lived under the radar. It was centuries before the records we rely on for starting a family tree, such as census records and civil registration of births, marriages and deaths, were invented.
However, parish, probate and tax records offer the possibility of finding evidence of a named forebear as far back as the 17th century, and there’s lots of this kind of data online. And while the chances of finding other sources are relatively low, the situation is far from hopeless.
The 17th century was the era of the Old Poor Law, of the Interregnum, of upheaval and mass migration. English courts began sending convicts to the colonies in America and the first Huguenots arrived in Britain.
If your ancestors were wealthy, you can track down family and estate collections, heraldic visitations, land and tax records. For forebears at the other end of the scale, it’s worth looking for digitisations or transcriptions of material left behind by the Poor Law system.
Here are five excellent websites that can lead you to those records and much more…
17th century history: The best websites
“The Protestation Returns are the closest record we have to a census from 1642.”
So begins this Parliamentary archives guide to protestation rolls, a useful 17th century source (although few are online and the information within is pretty scanty). The returns were the result of an order that all men had to swear an oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion.
Here you can search the archives catalogue, Portcullis, by entering ‘protestation returns’ into the appropriate field. The resulting list will show surviving returns by county, with the parishes or hundreds listed.
You can also use Portcullis to search for Returns of Roman Catholics that were compiled between 1680 and 1781.
Here you can search a vast number of websites with 17th century content, some free some with a fee. These include British History Online, British Newspapers 1600-1900 and London Lives 1690-1800.
The latter has all kinds of material relating to the Old Poor Law, while British History Online has a wide range of digitised volumes including Victoria County History. The homepage date slider means you can explore resources by blocks of 25 years.
Your best bet for finding your 17th century ancestors may be if they got in trouble with the law and can be found in court records. Records of 17th century quarter sessions will be found in local record offices, while records of the assizes are at The National Archives (TNA).
Meanwhile, you can dip into the fascinating Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674 to 1913, which contains accounts of almost 200,000 trials held at London’s Central Criminal Court, dating as far back as the 17th century.
Many guides from The National Archives touch on 17th century resources, and are a great starting point for researchers new to the era (as are the equivalents found at National Records of Scotland, National Library of Wales, Public Records Office of Northern Ireland, et al).
You could also try the lectures, podcasts and webinars available via The National Archives’ media player (see screenshot above), which include a 2008 lecture by David Hey, ‘Our 17th Century Ancestors’, exploring registers, wills, apprenticeship records, hearth tax returns and more. Meanwhile, if you’re hunting for wills, you can also search Discovery for all wills proved at the Prerogative Court of Canterbury between 1384 and 1858 (series PROB 11).
My recommended route into the vast FamilySearch mothership is via this historical collections page. It’s a simple listing of all FamilySearch’s collections, which you can then narrow down by era and place to find many in the 17th century. 17th century records from the UK include parish registers arranged by county, bishops’ transcripts, nonconformist material, marriage bonds, wills and more.
Jonathan Scott is the author of A Dictionary of Family History